49 Mayflower Pilgrims 1620 – kinfolk, Plymouth Colony Plantation, Mayflower Compact, Pilgrim Monument, Plymouth Rock, Thanksgiving, Immigrants






Squanto & Thanksgiving



Plimoth Plantation, founded in 1947, is a living history museum in Plymouth, Massachusetts, USA that attempts to replicate the original settlement of the Plymouth Colony established in the 17th century by English colonists who later became known as the Pilgrims.

Alongside the settlement is a re-creation of a Wampanoag home site.




The Mayflower Compact was the first agreement for self-government to be created and enforced in America. On September 16, 1620 the Mayflower, a British ship, with 102 passengers, who called themselves Pilgrims, aboard sailed from Plymouth, England.


The Pilgrim Monument in Provincetown, Massachusetts, was built between 1907 and 1910, to commemorate the first landfall of the Pilgrims in 1620, and the signing of the Mayflower Compact in Provincetown Harbor.


Plymouth Rock is the traditional site of disembarkation of William Bradfordand the Mayflower Pilgrims who founded Plymouth Colony in 1620.



64 died out of 104 within the first year winter.



1. & 2. Governor William Bradford & wife Dorothy (who drowned on the Mayfower).

William Bradford

Kinfolk: 2nd great-grandfather of husband of 1st cousin 7x removed

BAPTISM: 19 March 1589/90 at Austerfield, co. Yorks, England, son of William and Alice (Hanson) Bradford.
FIRST MARRIAGE:  Dorothy May, on 10 December 1613 at Amsterdam, Holland.
SECOND MARRIAGE: Alice (Carpenter) Southworth, on 14 August 1623 at Plymouth.
CHILDREN (by Dorothy): John
CHILDREN (by Alice): William, Mercy, Joseph
DEATH: 9 May 1657 at Plymouth.

William Bradford’s 1592 edition of the Geneva Bible, currently on display at the Pilgrim Hall Museum in Plymouth.


William Bradford was born in 1590 in the small farming community of Austerfield, Yorkshire. His father William died when young Bradford was just one year old. He lived with his grandfather William, until his grandfather died when he was six. His mother Alice then died when he was seven. Orphaned both from parents and grandparents, he and older sister Alice were raised by their uncle Robert Bradford. William was a sickly boy, and by the age of 12 had taken to reading the Bible, and as he began to come of age he became acquainted with the ministry of Richard Clyfton and John Smith, around which the Separatist churches of the region would eventually form about 1606.

His family was not supportive of his moves, and by 1607 the Church of England were applying pressure to extinguish these religious sects. Bradford, at the age of 18, joined with the group of Separatists that fled from England in fear of persecution, arriving in Amsterdam in 1608. A year later he migrated with the rest of the church to the town of Leiden, Holland, where they remained for eleven years. Bradford returned to Amsterdam temporarily in 1613 to marry his 16-year old bride, Dorothy May. In Leiden, Bradford took up the trade of a silk weaver to make ends meet, and also was able to recover some of the estate in England that he had been left by his father, to support himself and his new wife in Leiden. They had a son, John, born about 1615-1617 in Leiden.

John Carver was elected governor of Plymouth, and remained governor until his death a year later in April 1621. Bradford was then elected governor, and was re-elected nearly every year thereafter. In 1623, he married to the widowed Alice (Carpenter) Southworth, and had a marriage feast very reminiscent of the “First Thanksgiving,” with Massasoit and a large number of Indians joining, and bringing turkeys and deer.

Bradford was the head of the government of Plymouth, oversaw the courts, the colony’s finances, corresponded with investors and neighbors, formulated policy with regards to foreigners, Indians, and law, and so had a very active role in the running of the entire Colony. With his second wife, he had three more children, all of whom survived to adulthood.




3. 4. 5. & 6. William, Susanna Jackson, Resolved & Peregrine White

William White

Kinfolk: 4th great-uncle of husband of 1st cousin 7x removed

BAPTIZED:  25 January 1586/7 at Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, England, son of Edward and Thomasine (Cross)(May) White.
MARRIAGE:  Susanna Jackson, about 1614, probably in Amsterdam.
CHILDREN: Resolved and Peregrine.
DEATH: 21 February 1620/1 at Plymouth.

The origins of William White in England were just discovered in 2017 in a collaborative research project by Caleb Johnson, Sue Allan, and Simon Neal.  William White was baptized on 25 January 1586/7 at Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, England, the son of Edward and Thomasine (Cross)(May) White.  His mother, Thomasine, was married to John May, and was therefore was also the grandmother to Mayflower passenger Dorothy May.


Resolved White, son signature

William’s mother Thomasine was buried on 10 November 1591 at Wisbech.  His father Edward died about 1594 when he was seven, and he went to live with his maternal grandmother Jacomine and her second husband Thomas Robinson.  Thomas Robinson died in 1595, so widow Jacomine raised her grandchildren William (and sister Martha) White.  Martha died and was buried at the age of 19 in 1608, and (turning 21 that year) William headed off with his half-siblings Henry and Jacomine May to Amsterdam (he was given permission to reside in Amsterdam in June 1608), where they joined the church congregation of Henry Ainsworth.  William White witnessed the marriage of his half-sister Jacomine to Amsterdam printer Jan l’Ecluse on 5 May 1609.

He married Susanna Jackson, daughter of Richard and Mary (Pettinger) Jackson.  Susanna was likely born and raised in Scrooby, and her father held a lease for a portion of Scrooby Manor.  She may have fled with her father to Amsterdam in 1608, and there married William White.

cradle (1)

This cradle is believed to have been brought on the Mayflower by William and Susanna White, for the use of Peregrine White, who was born onboard the ship in November 1620 while it was anchored off the tip of Cape Cod.  It is on display at the Pilgrim Hall Museum in Plymouth.

William and Susanna had their son Resolved about 1615, and son Peregrine was born sometime the last three days of November 1620, after arrival and anchorage off Provincetown Harbor, but before the Pilgrims had explored and found Plymouth.

PeregrineWhiteAppleTree (1).png

An drawing from about 1846 of an apple tree said to have been planted by Peregrine White on his property in Marshfield.  By 1851, only the “right hand branch” was still standing, the rest had decayed and was cut away.  The shoot was reportedly still standing in 1901 but had died by 1914.

William died the first winter, 21 February 1620/1, on the same day as three other passengers, including William Mullins.  His wife Susanna remarried to Edward Winslow a few months later, on 12 May 1621, being the first marriage to occur at Plymouth.




7. Edward Winslow

Kinfolk: husband of wife of 4th great-uncle of husband of 1st cousin 7x removed

This portrait of Edward Winslow was done in London in 1651.  It is the only well-authenticated portrait of a Mayflower passenger.  It is on display at the Pilgrim Hall Museum in Plymouth.

7. & 8. Edward & Elizabeth Barker Winslow

BIRTH:  18 October 1595 at Droitwich, co. Worcester, England, son of Edward and Magdalene (Oliver) Winslow.
BAPTIZED: 20 October 1595 at St. Peter’s, Droitwich, co. Worcester, England.
FIRST MARRIAGE: Elizabeth Barker, 16 May 1618, at Leiden, Holland.
SECOND MARRIAGE: Susanna White, widow of William White, on 12 May 1621 at Plymouth.
CHILDREN (all by Susanna):  unnamed child who died young; Edward, John, Josiah, and Elizabeth.
DEATH: 8 May 1655 at sea between Hispaniola and Jamaica.


Edward Winslow was born in Droitwich, co. Worcester in 1595.  He was traveling in the Low Countries, and subsequently became acquainted with the Pilgrims’ church in Leiden.  He was married in Leiden in 1618 to Elizabeth Barker, and was called a printer of London at the time.  It is quite possible he was assisting William Brewster and Thomas Brewer in their publishing of religious books that were illegal in England.

Edward Winslow and wife Elizabeth came on the Mayflower to Plymouth in 1620.  Elizabeth died the first winter, and Edward remarried to the widowed Mrs. Susanna White, on 12 May 1621–the first marriage in the Plymouth Colony.

Winslow quickly became one of the more prominent men in the colony.  He was on many of the early explorations of Cape Cod, and led a number of expeditions to meet and trade with the Indians.  He wrote several first-hand accounts of these early years, including portions of A Relation or Journal of the Proceedings of the Plantation Settled at Plymouth (London, 1622) and the entirety of Good News from New England(London, 1624).

A Mortar and Pestle that is believed to have been owned by Edward Winslow.  It is on display at the Pilgrim Hall Museum in Plymouth.

Edward Winslow became involved in defending the Plymouth and later Massachusetts Bay Colonies from their opponents and adversaries in England, and made several trips back and forth between England and Massachusetts, including trips in 1623/4, 1630, and 1634; on one occasion he was arrested and thrown into the Fleet Prison in London by his adversaries, on grounds that he had performed marriage ceremonies without being ordained (the Pilgrims viewed marriage as an event to be handled by the civil magistrates, not by the Church).  Winslow returned to England shortly after the English Civil War, and published a couple of pamphlets in defense of the New England colonies, including Hypocrisy Unmasked (1646) andNew England’s Salamander Discovered (1647).  He also wrote the introduction to the Glorious Progress of the Gospel Amongst the Indians in New England (1649).

In Plymouth, he held a number of political offices, as was routinely elected an assistant to Governor William Bradford; Winslow himself was elected governor of Plymouth on three occasions: 1632/3, 1635/6, and 1644.  After Winslow returned to England, he was on several Parliamentary committees.  He died in 1655 at sea between Hispaniola and Jamaica, while serving as a commissioner for Oliver Cromwell on a military expedition to retake the island of Hispaniola.


Edward Winslow on his visit to the Wampanoag in 1621, as depicted for the documentary “Desperate Crossing.” Promotional image courtesy of Lone Wolf Documentary Group.




9. Gilbert Winslow

Kinfolk: brother-in-law of wife of 4th great-uncle of husband of 1st cousin 7x removed

Gilbert Winslow

BAPTISM: 29 October 1600, St. Peters, Droitwich, co. Worchester, England, son of Edward and Magdelene (Oliver) Winslow.
MARRIAGE: Did not marry.
BURIAL: 11 October 1631 at Ludlow, co. Shropshire, England.

Gilbert Winslow was twenty years old when he came on the Mayflower with his older brother Edward Winslow.  Other brothers Kenelm, John, and Josiah, also later came to New England.  Gilbert signed the “Mayflower Compact” in November 1620.  William Bradford recorded that Gilbert Winslow lived in Plymouth for “divers years,” before he “returned into England and died there.”

Gilbert’s burial and probate administration were only recently discovered at Ludlow, Shropshire, England, where his estate was valued at just over £30.  It was administered by his brother Edward.

In 1663, the Plymouth Court acknowledged Gilbert Winslow, deceased, was a first-comer and his heirs could seek out and purpose a plot of land to the Court.  The estate inventory of Kenelm Winslow, another brother who came to New England later, mentions that he and his brother John were granted Gilbert Winslow’s land.




10. 11. 12. & 13. Isaac , Bartholomew, Remember & Mary Allerton:

Isaac Allerton

Kinfolk: husband of sister-in-law of 2nd great-grandfather of wife of 5th cousin 5x removed


BIRTH:  About 1586, perhaps in or near Ipswich, co. Suffolk, England.
FIRST MARRIAGE:  Mary Norris on 4 November 1611 at Leiden, Holland.
SECOND MARRIAGE:  Fear Brewster, about 1626, at Plymouth, the daughter of William Brewster.
THIRD MARRIAGE:  Joanna Swinnerton, sometime between 1634 and 1644, probably at Marblehead.
CHILDREN (by Mary):  BartholomewRememberMary, an unnamed child buried in Leiden, and a stillborn son born in Plymouth Harbor.
CHILDREN (by Fear):  Sarah and Isaac.
DEATH:  Between 1 and 12 February 1658/9 at New Haven.

Isaac Allerton may have come from the vicinity of Ipswich, co. Suffolk, England.  He first appears in Leiden, Holland records on 4 November 1611, when he married Mary Norris.  Isaac had a sister named Sarah who also resided in Leiden, and who married future Mayflower passenger Degory Priest.  He was probably also related, perhaps a brother, to Mayflower passenger John Allerton.

Isaac Allerton is one of the most complex figures in early Plymouth Colony.  He was elected assistant to Governor Bradford in 1621, and continued in that capacity well into the 1630s.  He was the individual sent to handle most of the buyout negotiations with the London investors that ccommenced in 1627, and continued through the early 1630s.  Allerton soon began to take advantage of his position by engaging in some personal trading deals, and engaging the Pilgrims’ joint-stock company in business ventures they had not authorized.  After driving the colony deeper into debt with ill-advised business opportunities, he was eventually removed and replaced by Edward Winslow.  After the death of his wife Fear in 1634, he retreated to the New Haven Colony and married there to Joanna Swinnerton.

Allerton became an active merchant trader, engaging in transactions and trade with many neighboring colonies including the Dutch at New Netherlands; New Sweden; Virginia; Massachusetts Bay; and Barbados.




13. Mary Norris Allerton

Kinfolk: wife of husband of sister-in-law of 2nd great-grandfather of wife of 5th cousin 5x removed

Mary (Norris) Allerton

BIRTH:  Probably about 1590, perhaps from Newbury, co. Berks, England.
MARRIAGE:  Isaac Allerton on 4 November 1611 at Leiden, Holland.
CHILDREN:  BartholomewRememberMary, an unnamed child buried in Leiden, and a stillborn son born in Plymouth Harbor.
DEATH:  25 February 1620/1 at Plymouth.

Mary (Norris) Allerton was about thirty when she came on the Mayflower with her husband Isaac and three children BartholomewRemember, and Mary.  Her marriage record in Leiden indicates she was from Newbury, which is presumably Newbury, co. Berks, England.  Searches of this area for her baptism record and other Norris family records have not yet turned up anything conclusive.  They buried a child at St. Peters, Leiden, on 5 February 1620, and she gave birth to a stillborn son in Plymouth Harbor on 22 December 1620.  She herself died during the height of the first winter, on 25 February 1620/1, though her husband and three children all survived.




14. John Howland, Sr.

John Howland

Kinfolk: great-grandfather of wife of 3rd cousin 7x removed

BIRTH:  About 1599, son of Henry and Margaret Howland of Fenstanton, co. Huntington.
MARRIAGE:  Elizabeth Tilley, daughter of John and Joan (Hurst) Tilley, about 1624, at Plymouth.
CHILDREN: Desire, John, Hope, Elizabeth, Lydia, Hannah, Joseph, Jabez, Ruth, and Isaac.
DEATH: 23 or 24 February 1672/3 at Rocky Nook, Plymouth.

John Howland was born about 1599, probably in Fenstanton, Huntington. He came on the Mayflower in 1620 as a manservant of Governor John Carver. During the Mayflower‘s voyage, Howland fell overboard during a storm, and was almost lost at sea–but luckily for his millions of descendants living today (including Presidents George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush, and Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt) he managed to grab hold of the topsail halyards, giving the crew enough time to rescue him with a boat-hook.


“Howland Overboard,” a painting by maritime artist Mike Haywood.  Giclee canvas prints are available from the MayflowerHistory.com Store.

It has been traditionally reported that John Howland was born about 1592, based on his reported age at death in the Plymouth Church Records. However, ages at death were often overstated, and that is clearly the case here. John Howland came as a servant for John Carver, which means he was under 25 years old at the time (i.e. he was born after 1595). William Bradford, in the falling-overboard incident, refers to Howland as a “lusty young man,” a term that would not likely have applied to a 28-year old given that Bradford himself was only 30. Bradford did call 21-year old John Alden a “young man” though. Howland’s wife Elizabeth was born in 1607: a 32-year old marrying a 17-year old is a relatively unlikely circumstance.  Howland’s last child was born in 1649: a 57-year old Howland would be an unlikely father. All these taken together demonstrate that Howland’s age was likely overstated by at least 5 years. Since he signed the “Mayflower Compact”, we can assume he was probably at least 18 to 21 years old in 1620.

John Howland had several brothers who also came to New England, namely Henry Howland (an ancestor to both Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford) and Arthur Howland (an ancestor to Winston Churchill).


The Jabez Howland house in Plymouth was built about 1667.  John and Elizabeth Howland lived with their son Jabez in this house during the winters, and Elizabeth also lived their after the death of her husband in 1672.


The Howland family burial plot on Burial Hill in Plymouth.


Stone memorial marking the spot of John and Elizabeth (Tilley) Howland’s homesite in Rocky Nook, north of Plymouth.  The Pilgrim John Howland society owns the land and archaeologists have worked the site each summer for a number of years.




15. Elizabeth Tilley Howland

Elizabeth Tilley

Kinfolk: great-grandmother of wife of 3rd cousin 7x removed


(The mark of (EH) Elizabeth Howland)

BAPTISM: 30 August 1607 at Henlow, co. Bedford, England, daughter of John and Joan (Hurst) (Rogers) Tilley.
MARRIAGE: John Howland, about 1625, at Plymouth.
CHILDREN: Desire, John, Hope, Elizabeth, Lydia, Hannah, Joseph, Jabez, Ruth, and Isaac.
DEATH: 21 December 1687 at Swansea.

Elizabeth Tilley came on the Mayflower, at the age of about thirteen, with her parents John and Joan (Hurst) Tilley.  Her parents, and her aunt and uncle Edward and Agnes Tilley, all died the first winter, leaving her orphaned in the New World.  She soon married, about 1624 or 1625, to fellow Mayflower passenger John Howland, who had come as a manservant, or apprentice, to Governor John Carver who died in April 1621.

John and Elizabeth Howland raised a large family with ten children, all of whom lived to adulthood and married.  As a result, they likely have more descendants living today than any other Mayflower passengers.  Some of their descendants include Franklin D. Roosevelt; both President Bush’s; actors Alec and Stephen Baldwin, Humphrey Bogart, Christopher Lloyd; Mormon church founder Joseph Smith; poet Ralph Waldo Emerson; and Doctor Benjamin Spock.


The parish church of Henlow, Bedfordshire, where Elizabeth Tilley was baptized in 1607.




16. John Tilley

Kinfolk: 2nd great-grandfather of wife of 3rd cousin 7x removed

John Tilley

BAPTISM:  19 December 1571 at Henlow, co. Bedford, England, son of Robert and Elizabeth Tilley.
MARRIAGE:  Joan (Hurst) Rogers, on 20 September 1596 at Henlow, co. Bedford, England, the daughter of William and Rose Hurst and widow of Thomas Rogers (no relation to Thomas Rogers, the Mayflower passenger).
CHILDREN: Rose (died young), John, Rose, Robert, and Elizabeth.
DEATH:  Sometime the first winter at Plymouth, likely between January and March 1621.

Surprisingly little is known about John Tilley.  He was born in 1571 at Henlow, co. Bedford, England, and his brother Edward Tilley and wife Agnes (along with their neice and nephew Humility Cooper and Henry Samson) also came on the Mayflower.  Brother Edward is known to have lived in Leiden, but there is no record of John Tilley there (though it is certainly possible he was present there and just didn’t get named in any record).  John and Joan Tilley came on the Mayflower with their youngest child, Elizabeth, then about thirteen years old.

Both John Tilley and wife Joan died the first winter at Plymouth, but their daughter Elizabeth survived and later married fellow Mayflower passenger John Howland.


The parish church at Henlow, Bedfordshire, where John Tilley was baptized in 1571, married in 1596, and where his children were baptized.




17. Joan Hurst Rogers Tilley

Kinfolk: 2nd great-grandmother of wife of 3rd cousin 7x removed

Joan (Hurst) (Rogers) Tilley

BAPTISM:  13 March 1567/8 at Henlow, co. Bedford, England, daughter of William and Rose Hurst.
FIRST MARRIAGE:  Thomas Rogers, on 18 June 1593 at Henlow, co. Bedford, England.  (No relation to Thomas Rogers the Mayflower passenger of the same name).
SECOND MARRIAGE:  John Tilley, on 20 September 1596 at Henlow, co. Bedford, England.
CHILDREN (by Thomas):  Joan.
CHILDREN (by John): Rose (died young), John, Rose, Robert, and Elizabeth.
DEATH: Sometime the first winter at Plymouth.

Joan Hurst was born in 1567/8 in Henlow, Bedford, England, the daughter of William and Rose Hurst.  She married first to Thomas Rogers in 1593 (not related to the Mayflower passenger Thomas Rogers).  With her husband Thomas, she had a daughter Joan, baptized on 26 May 1594 in Henlow.  Attempts to determine what happened to Joan have so far been unsuccessful.  She may have died young.  When her first husband Thomas died, likely around 1594 or 1595, she remarried to John Tilly.

John and Joan (Hurst)(Rogers) Tilley came on the Mayflower in 1620, bringing with them daughter Elizabeth.  Joan, along with her husband, died the first winter at Plymouth, orphaning their 13-year old daughter Elizabeth in the New World.  Elizabeth would later marry to Mayflower passenger John Howland.


The parish church of Henlow, Bedfordshire, where Joan (Hurst)(Rogers) Tilley was baptized in 1568, married in 1593 and 1596, and where her children were baptized.




18. Edward Tilley

Kinfolk: 3rd great-uncle of wife of 3rd cousin 7x removed


BAPTISM: 27 May 1588 at Henlow, co. Bedford, England, son of Robert and Elizabeth Tilley.
MARRIAGE: Agnes Cooper, 20 June 1614 at Henlow, co. Bedford, England, daughter of Edmund and Mary (Wyne) Cooper.
CHILDREN: None recorded.
DEATH:  Sometime the first winter at Plymouth, probably between January and March 1621.

Edward Tilley was born in 1588 in Henlow, co. Bedford, England, the son of Robert and Elizabeth Tilley.  He married Agnes Cooper on 20 June 1614 in Henlow.  Shortly after their marriage they moved to Leiden, Holland, where he is recorded in a notary record dated 25 April 1618.  They came on the Mayflower along with their niece and nephew Humility Cooper and Henry Samson.

Edward signed the “Mayflower Compact” and participated in the early explorations on Cape Cod where he was once appointed to provide “advice and council” to Myles Standish.  By the time of the third exploration at Cape Cod, Edward Tilley had developed a cold.  He would later die the first winter at Plymouth.


The parish church of Henlow, Bedfordshire, where Edward Tilley was baptized in 1588 and married in 1614.




19. Agnes Cooper Tilley

Kinfolk: wife of 3rd great-uncle of wife of 3rd cousin 7x removed

Agnes (Cooper) Tilley

Agnes Cooper was baptized on 7 November 1585 at Henlow, co. Bedford, England, the daughter of Edmund and Mary (Wyne) Cooper.  On 20 June 1614, she married Edward Tilley.  They moved to Leiden, Holland by 1618, and came on the Mayflower to Plymouth in 1620 with Henry Samson and Humility Cooper.  Agnes’ sister Martha was the mother of Henry Samson, and her brother Robert was the father of Humility Cooper.

Some of the lines of Agnes’ ancestry have been traced as far back as Wido de Reinbudcourt, the Doomsday Lord of Chipping Warden and Burton, co. Northampton, who lived in the 11th century, but no royal line has yet been found.  Agnes died sometime the first winter at Plymouth, between January and March 1621.  She and Edward had no known children.


The parish church of Henlow, Bedfordshire, where Agnes Cooper was baptized in 1585 and married in 1614.




20. Henry Samson

Kinfolk: nephew of wife of 3rd great-uncle of wife of 3rd cousin 7x removed

Henry Samson

BAPTISM: 15 January 1603/4 at Henlow, co. Bedford, England, son of James and Martha (Cooper) Samson.
MARRIAGE: Ann Plummer, 6 February 1635/6 at Plymouth.
CHILDREN: Elizabeth, Hannah, daughter (name unknown), John, Mary, Dorcas, James, Stephen, and Caleb.
DEATH: 24 December 1684 at Duxbury.

Henry Samson was born in Henlow, co. Bedford, England, and came on the Mayflower at the age of about 17 with his uncle and aunt, Edward and Ann (Cooper) Tilley. He married Ann Plummer in 1635/6 at Plymouth, became a freeman in Plymouth around that time, and volunteered for service in the Pequot War of 1637 (but Plymouth’s company was not called into service).

By 1643 he had moved to Duxbury, where he became constable in 1661, and tax collector for 1667 and 1668. He was on a large number of juries and grand juries, and was appointed a surveyor on a couple of occasions. His wife Ann died sometime between 1668 and 1684; he died in 1684 at Duxbury.


The parish church of Henlow, Bedfordshire, where Henry Samson was baptized on 15 January 1603/4.




21. Humility Cooper

Kinfolk: niece of wife of 3rd great-uncle of wife of 3rd cousin 7x removed

Humility Cooper

BIRTH:  About 1619, probably in Leiden, Holland, the daughter of Robert Cooper.
BAPTISM:  17 March 1638/9 at Holy Trinity, London, at the age of 19.
MARRIAGE:  Did not marry.
DEATH:  Sometime between 1639 (her baptism) and 1651 (when Bradford writes that she had died in England).

Humility Cooper was the daughter of Robert Cooper, who was originally from Henlow, co. Bedford, England.  She was born about 1619 (based on her age at baptism), and came on the Mayflower in the custody of her uncle and aunt, Edward and Agnes (Cooper) Tilley.  This probably suggests her mother had died (perhaps a childbirth complication) and so her father Robert may have then turned his young daughter over to his sister Agnes for care.

Unfortunately, both Edward and Agnes Tilley died the first winter at Plymouth, and Humility was sent back to England or Holland, probably in 1621.  By 1638, at the age of 19, she was living in the parish of Holy Trinity, London, and was baptized there, as an adult, on 17 March 1638/9.  No further record of her has been found, outside of the fact that William Bradford, writing in 1651, indicates she had died.


The baptism record of Humility Cooper from the parish registers of Holy Trinity Minorities, London.  It reads “Humilitie Cooper of xix yeeres of Age, daughter of Robert ~ Cooper borne in Holland was baptized this xviith day of Marche 1638.”




22. , 23., 24., 25. William, Mary, Love & Wrestling Brewster

William Brewster

Kinfolk: father-in-law of 2nd great-grandfather of wife of 5th cousin 5x removed

Autograph_WilliamBrewster (1).jpg

BIRTH:  About 1566, in the vicinity of Scrooby, Nottinghamshire, England, son of William and Mary (Smythe)(Simkinson) Brewster.
MARRIAGE:  Mary (maiden name unknown), about 1592, probably in the vicinity of Scrooby, Nottinghamshire, England.
CHILDREN: Jonathan, Patience, Fear, an unnamed child who died young, Love, and Wrestling.
DEATH: 10 April 1644 at Plymouth.


This chest, on display at the Pilgrim Hall Museum in Plymouth, is said to have been brought on the Mayflower by William Brewster.

William Brewster was born about 1566, the son of William Brewster. He was educated in both Greek and Latin and spent some time at Cambridge University, although he never completed a full degree. He went into the service of William Davison, then Secretary of State, while his father back home maintained a position as the postmaster of Scrooby, Nottinghamshire. Under Davison, Brewster first traveled to the Netherlands.

After Davison was removed as Secretary of State by Queen Elizabeth, Brewster worked himself into his father’s postmaster duties and maintained Scrooby Manor. Brewster was instrumental in establishing a Separatist church with Richard Clyfton, and they often held their meetings in the Manor house. Brewster and the others were eventually found and forced out, and fleeing prosecution and persecution they headed to Amsterdam in 1608, and moved to Leiden, Holland in 1609. Brewster became the church’s Elder, responsible for seeing that the congregation’s members carried themselves properly, both helping and admonishing them when necessary.

In Leiden, Brewster working with Thomas Brewer, Edward Winslow, and others, began working a printing press and publishing religious books and pamphlets that were then illegally conveyed into England. Brewster also employed himself teaching University of Leiden students English. By 1618, the English authorities were onto him and his printing press, and had the Dutch authorities in pursuit of him. Thomas Brewer was arrested and held in the University of Leiden’s prison, but Brewster managed to evade the authorities and went into hiding for a couple years.

When the Leiden church congregation decided to send the first wave of settlers to establish a colony that everyone could eventually move to, their pastor John Robinson decided to remain behind in Leiden with the majority of the congregation, intending to come later. The smaller group that went on the Mayflower desired the next highest ranking church official, Elder Brewster, to go with them; so he agreed. He brought his wife Mary and two youngest children, Love and Wrestling, on the Mayflower with him.

Brewster continued his work as Church Elder throughout his life at Plymouth Colony. His wife Mary died in 1627, and he never remarried. He lived to be nearly 80 years old, dying in 1644. His estate inventory lists the titles of several hundred books that he owned.  Shortly after he died, William Bradford wrote a short but concise biography of Brewster in his history Of Plymouth Plantation, though he erroneously filed it under 1643 instead of 1644.


A 19th century photograph of Scrooby Manor, where William Brewster lived and served as postmaster, and where the early Separatists held some of their secret meetings.


Perth Assemby, the book William Brewster secretly published and distributed in England in 1619 that made King James extremely angry and resulted in the eventual confiscation of his printing press, the arrest of Thomas Brewer by University of Leiden authorities, and forced Brewster into hiding.


A page from the “Brewster Book,” containing some of the family birth and death records for William and Mary Brewster and their children.


  • St. Wilfred’s, Scrooby, formerly St. James, Scrooby, the parish church of the Brewster family, where presumably William Brewster was baptized and married, and where his children were baptized.


  • One of the surviving “Brewster pews” inside the Scrooby church.  One pew was gifted to the Pilgrim Hall Museum in Plymouth as well.


  • Interior of the Scrooby church.
  • Exterior of the only surviving portion of Scrooby Manor, where William Brewster resided and where the Pilgrims held their secret church gatherings from about 1604 to 1607.




26. John Alden (see next Priscilla Mullins, wife)

John Alden

Kinfolk: paternal grandfather of wife of brother-in-law of great-uncle of husband of 5th cousin 5x removed

BIRTH:  About 1599, possibly at Harwich, co. Essex, England.
MARRIAGE:  Priscilla Mullins, about 1622-1623, at Plymouth.
CHILDREN:  Elizabeth, John, Joseph, Priscilla, Jonathan, Sarah, Ruth, Mary, Rebecca, and David.
DEATH:  12 September 1687 at Duxbury.

John Alden may be descended from an Alden family that was residing in the parish of Harwich, co. Essex, England: a family that was related, by marriage, to the Mayflower‘s master Christopher Jones.  He was about twenty-one years old when he was hired from Southampton to be the cooper (barrel-maker) for the Mayflower‘s voyage to America.

The Pilgrims’ joint-stock company gave him the option to stay in America, or return to England.  He chose to stay, and about 1622 or 1623 he married fellow Mayflower passenger Priscilla Mullins, an orphaned young woman originally from Dorking, co. Surrey, England, whose parents William and Alice, and brother Joseph, had all perished in the first winter at Plymouth.

A fictional account of John and Priscilla Alden’s courtship and its entanglement with Myles Standish, is the subject of the famous Henry Wadsworth Longfellow poem, “The Courtship of Myles Standish“.


Halberd found in the cellar of the John Alden house archaeology site in Duxbury.  It is on display at the Pilgrim Hall Museum in Plymouth.

Likely a combination of his practical skills as a cooper and carpenter, and his young wife Priscilla’s substantial inheritance of company shares, John Alden quickly rose up to become a prominent member of the Plymouth Colony.

He was elected an assistant to the governor as early as 1631 and was regularly reelected.  He was one of the men who purchased the joint-stock company from its English shareholders in 1626, and was involved in the company’s trading on the Kennebec River.  In 1634, he was involved in a fur trading dispute that escalated into a double-killing (trespasser John Hocking and Plymouth colonist Moses Talbot).  He was held by the Massachusetts Bay Colony for questioning, which caused a major jurisdictional controversy as Plymouth Colony leadership felt the Bay Colony had no authority to detain him.


The Alden House in Duxbury that was built by John Alden about 1651.  It is currently maintained by the Alden Kindred of America.

John Alden, along with Myles Standish and several other Plymouth Colonists, founded the town of Duxbury to the north of Plymouth.  Dendrochronological evidence suggests the men had started building their houses there as early as 1629.  Alden served the town of Duxbury as deputy to the Plymouth Court throughout the 1640s, and served on several committees and sat on several Councils of War.  He also served for a time as colony treasurer.  About 1653, he built the Alden House, which is still standing and is maintained by the Alden Kindred of America.

By the 1660s, John and Priscilla Alden had a growing family of ten children.  Combined with his numerous public service duties (which were mostly unpaid positions) he was left in fairly low means.  He petitioned and received from the Plymouth Court various land grants, which he distributed to his children throughout the 1670s.  He died in 1687 at the age of 89, one of the last surviving Mayflower passengers.  Two broadsides (predecessor of the newspaper) printed obituaries for John Alden, illustrated below.




27. – 30. William, Alice, Priscilla ( Alden ) & Joseph Mullins


(The mark (X) of William Mullins)

William Mullins

Kinfolk: great-grandfather of wife of brother-in-law of great-uncle of husband of 5th cousin 5x removed

BIRTH:  About 1572 at Dorking, co. Surrey, England, son of John and Joan (Bridger) Mullins.
MARRIAGE:  Alice, probably about 1600, likely in co. Surrey, England.
CHILDREN:  William, Sarah, Priscilla, and Joseph.
DEATH:  21 February 1620/1 at Plymouth.

William Mullins was born about 1572 to John and Joan (Bridger) Mullins of Dorking, Surrey, England. He married a woman named Alice, but her maiden name has not been identified. Longstanding claims that her maiden name is Atwood, or Poretiers, are without basis.  Recent research in Dorking records has suggested that Alice is more likely to have come from the Browne, Gardinar, Dendy, Hammon or Wood families, perhaps even related to Mayflower passenger Peter Browne who also came from Dorking.

William brought his wife Alice and children Priscilla and Joseph on the Mayflower; he also brought over 250 shoes and 13 pairs of boots, his profession being a shoemaker. He died on 21 February 1620/1, during the first winter at Plymouth, as did his wife and son Joseph as well. His original will has survived, written down by John Carver the day of Mullins’ death. In it he mentions his wife Alice, children Priscilla and Joseph, and his children back in Dorking, William Mullins and Sarah Blunden. He also mentions a Goodman Woods (likely a reference to the Wood family in Dorking), and a Master Williamson, who have not been identified. It was witnessed by the Mayflower‘s captain Christopher Jones, the Mayflower‘s surgeon Giles Heale, and Plymouth’s governor John Carver.


The 1621 will of William Mullins.  This is the only surviving will from someone who died the first winter at Plymouth.  It was sailed back to England in April 1621 onboard the Mayflower.  The will was witnessed by Governor John Carver, Mayflower master Christopher Jones, and ship’s surgeon Giles Heale.


Wall mural of a horse, found inside William Mullins house in Dorking, co. Surrey, England.


  • The four-unit William Mullins house in Dorking, Surrey, England, consisting of four street-front shops.  The house was originally built in 1590 by the Sheffield family, and purchased in 1612 by William Mullins.  He lived there until 1619, when he sold it to Ephraim Bothell.




31 Richard Warren

Richard Warren

Kinfolk: 2nd great-grandfather of husband of 4th cousin 6x removed

BIRTH:  Probably around 1585 in co. Hertford, England.
MARRIAGE: Elizabeth Walker, 14 April 1610 at Great Amwell, co. Hertford, England, daughter of Augustine Walker.
CHILDREN: Mary, Ann, Sarah, Elizabeth, Abigail, Nathaniel and Joseph.
DEATH: 1628 at Plymouth.

Richard Warren’s English origins and ancestry have been the subject of much speculation, and countless different ancestries have been published for him, without a shred of evidence to support them.  Luckily in December 2002, Edward Davies discovered the missing piece of the puzzle.  Researchers had long known of the marriage of Richard Warren to Elizabeth Walker on 14 April 1610 at Great Amwell, Hertford.  Since we know the Mayflower passenger had a wife named Elizabeth, and a first child born about 1610, this was a promising record.  But no children were found for this couple in the parish registers, and no further evidence beyond the names and timing, until the will of Augustine Walker was discovered.  In the will of Augustine Walker, dated April 1613, he mentions “my daughter Elizabeth Warren wife of Richard Warren”, and “her three children Mary, Ann and Sarah.”  We know that the Mayflower passenger’s first three children were named Mary, Ann, and Sarah (in that birth order).

Very little is known about Richard Warren’s life in America.  He came alone on the Mayflower in 1620, leaving behind his wife and five daughters.  They came to him on the ship Anne in 1623, and Richard and Elizabeth subsequently had sons Nathaniel and Joseph at Plymouth.  He received his acres in the Division of Land in 1623, and his family shared in the 1627 Division of Cattle.  But he died a year later in 1628.  The only record of his death is found in Nathaniel Morton’s 1669 book New England’s Memorial, in which he writes: “This year [1628] died Mr. Richard Warren, who was an useful instrument and during his life bare a deep share in the difficulties and troubles of the first settlement of the Plantation of New Plymouth.”

All of Richard Warren’s children survived to adulthood, married, and had large families: making Richard Warren one of the most common Mayflower passengers to be descended from.  Richard Warren’s descendants include such notables as Civil War general and President Ulysses S. Grant; President Franklin D. Roosevelt; and Alan B. Shepard, Jr. the first American in space and the fifth person to walk on the moon.



32. & 33. Francis & John Cooke

Kinfolk: father-in-law of 2nd great-aunt of husband of 4th cousin 6x removed

Francis Cooke

Francis Coooke

Spouse & Children

  • Hester le Mahieu


  • John COOKE , Mayflower Pilgrim


  • Jacob COOKE


  • Hester COOKE
  • ElizabethCoooke
  • Jane COOKE

BIRTH:  About 1583.
MARRIAGE:  Hester le Mahieu, 20 July 1603 at Leiden, Holland.
CHILDREN:  John, an unnamed child buried in Leiden, Jane, Elizabeth, Jacob, Hester, and Mary.
DEATH:  7 April 1663 at Plymouth.


Francis Cooke was born about 1583. His origins have not been discovered, but it is probable he was born in England, perhaps from the Canterbury or Norwich areas. He married Hester le Mahieu on 20 July 1603 in Leiden, Holland; she was a French Walloon whose parents had initially fled to Canterbury, England; she left for Leiden sometime before 1603. Francis Cooke and Hester le Mahieu’s marriage occurred in Leiden, Holland six years before the Pilgrim church made its move there, so he was living there long before their arrival and must have met up with and joined them afterwards.

What brought Francis to Holland in the first place is unknown: religious persecution of Protestants in England did not really begin until after King James took power in 1604. In 1606, the Cookes left Leiden and went to Norwich, co. Norfolk, for a time (for what reason is not known), but returned to have their first son, John, baptized at the French church in Leiden, sometime between January and March, 1607. In Holland, Cooke took up the profession of wool-comber.

Francis, and his oldest son John, came on the Mayflowerto Plymouth in 1620. He left behind his wife Hester and his other children Jane, Jacob, Elizabeth and Hester. After the Colony was founded and better established, he sent for his wife and children, and they came to Plymouth in 1623 onboard the ship Anne.

Francis lived out his life in Plymouth. Although he kept a fairly low profile, he was on a number of minor committees such as the committee to lay out the highways, and received some minor appointments by the Court to survey land. He was a juror on a number of occasions, and was on the coroner’s jury that examined the body of Martha Bishop, the 4-year old daughter who was murdered by her mother Alice. He received some modest land grants at various times throughout his life. He lived to be about 80 years old, dying in 1663; his wife Hester survived him by at least three years and perhaps longer.




34. Degory Priest

Degory Priest

Kinfolk: husband of aunt of wife of husband of great-grandmother of wife of 3rd cousin 7x removed

BIRTH: About 1579.
MARRIAGE:  Sarah (Allerton) Vincent, 4 November 1611, Leiden, Holland, the sister of Isaac Allerton.
CHILDREN: Mary and Sarah.
DEATH: 1 January 1620/1 at Plymouth.


Degory Priest deposed that he was 40 years old in a document signed in Leiden in April 1619; this would place his birth at about 1579 in England. On 4 November 1611, he was married to Sarah (Allerton) Vincent, the widow of John Vincent, and the sister of Mayflower passenger Isaac Allerton; Isaac Allerton was married to his wife Mary Norris on the same date.



Dutch hatters at work, cir. 1635.

It has been suggested that Degory Priest of the Mayflowermay have been the Degorius Prust, baptized 11 August 1582 in Hartland, co. Devon, England, the son of Peter Prust. However, given that the baptism appears to be about 3 years too late, and the fact that none of the Leiden Separatists are known to have come from Devonshire, I have my doubts this baptism belongs to the Mayflower passenger. Degory Priest was one of the earliest to have arrived in Leiden, so it seems more reasonable to suspect he is from the Nottinghamshire/Yorkshire region, the Sandwich/Canterbury region, the London/Middlesex region, or the Norfolk region: all of the early Separatists in Leiden appear to have come from one of these centers.

Degory Priest became a citizen of Leiden on 16 November 1615, and was called a hatter, and perhaps employed with Samuel Lee and Godbert Godbertson, other members of the Leiden congregation who were also hatter.  In 1617, Degory Priest had some kind of altercation with a man named John Cripps who was alleged to have been having an adulterous affair with Elizabeth wife of John Mos.  He had some friends sign an affidavit stating he hadn’t hit Cripps but only “touched his jabot.”  Degory shared his Leiden residence with a tobacco-pipe maker named Nicholas Claverly.

Degory and wife Sarah had two children, Mary and Sarah. Degory came alone on the Mayflower, planning to bring wife and children later after the colony was better established. His death the first winter ended those plans. His wife remarried to Godbert Godbertson in Leiden on 13 November 1621, and they had a son Samuel together. Godbert, his wife Sarah, their son Samuel, and his step-children Mary and Sarah Priest all came on the ship Anneto Plymouth in 1623.



35. – 37. Mary Chilton Winslow, James & Mrs. Chilton.


  • James Chilton , Mayflower Pilgrim


  • Mrs. Chilton , Mayflower Pilgrim



  • John Winslow



Mary Chilton

Kinfolk: wife of brother-in-law of wife of 4th great-uncle of husband of 1st cousin 7x removed


BAPTISM:  31 May 1607 at St. Peter’s, Sandwich, co. Kent, England, daughter of James Chilton.
MARRIAGE:  John Winslow (brother of Mayflower passengers Edward and Gilbert Winslow), about 1626 at Plymouth.
CHILDREN:  John, Susanna, Mary, Edward, Sarah, Samuel, Joseph, Isaac, an unnamed child who died young, and Benjamin.
DEATH: Before 1 May 1679 at Boston.


Mary Chilton was born in 1607 in Sandwich, Kent, England, and was the daughter of James Chilton and his wife (whose name has not been discovered). When Mary was just two years old, excommunication proceedings began against her mother, who had attended the secret burial of a child of Andrew Sharpe. The child was buried in secret because they opposed the “popish” burial ceremonies required by the Church of England.

Mary and family then came to Leiden, Holland, and joined with the Pilgrims’ church there. In 1619, when she was twelve, her father and oldest sister were caught in an anti-Arminian riot and her father was hit in the head with a stone–an injury for which he would have to seek out a surgeon.

In 1620, at the age of 13, Mary came with her parents on the Mayflower. Her father was one of the first who died after the ship had anchored off Provincetown Harbor. He died on December 8. Mary is traditionally given the honor of being the first female to step ashore at Plymouth Rock, but there is no historical documentation for this tradition. Her mother died sometime later the first winter, orphaning her in the New World. Which family it was that raised her has not been determined, but in 1623, at the age of 16, Mary received her share in the Division of Land, and her property was located between that of Myles Standish and John Alden, and was not too far from the Winslows. Edward Winslow’s brother John had come to Plymouth on the ship Fortune in 1621. Sometime between 1623 and 1627, John Winslow married Mary Chilton.  In the 1627 Division of Cattle they received a share in the “lesser” black cow that had come in the shipAnne in 1623, along with two female goats. As they had not yet had any children by the Division of Cattle, it is likely their marriage occurred in 1626.

Their first child John was born about 1627, and nine more children would follow. The family resided in Plymouth for many years, but eventually ended up in Boston, where her husband John died in 1674. Mary made out her will in 1676 and died about 1679.




38. – 41. Edward , Mrs & Samuel &

Dr. Samuel Fuller.


Dr. Samuel Fuller

Kinfolk: husband of 2nd great-aunt of husband of 4th cousin 6x removed


BAPTISM: 20 January 1580 at Redenhall, co. Norfolk, England, son of Robert Fuller.
FIRST MARRIAGE: Alice Glascock, perhaps around 1605.
SECOND MARRIAGE:  Agnes Carpenter, 24 April 1613, Leiden, Holland.
THIRD MARRIAGE: Bridget Lee, 27 May 1617, Leiden, Holland.
CHILDREN (by Agnes):  two unnamed children who died young and were buried in Leiden.
CHILDREN (by Bridget): Samuel and Mercy.


Samuel Fuller has been generally identified as the son of Robert Fuller, baptized on 20 January 1580 at Redenhall, co. Norfolk. The identification is based upon circumstantial evidence only: the fact that the names Samuel, Edward, and Ann occur within the same family; and the fact the father is identified as a butcher. Thomas Morton, writing in 1637, says that Samuel Fuller was the son of a butcher. The name Matthew also occurs in this Redenhall Fuller family.

Samuel Fuller’s 1613 Leiden marriage record indicates he had been formerly married to Alice Glascock; nothing is known of his first wife beyond her name. The name Alice Glascock is found most commonly in co. Essex, England. His second wife, Agnes Carpenter, was the daughter of Alexander Carpenter.  She was baptized at Wrington, Somerset, on 16 December 1593. His third wife, Bridget Lee, was accompanied by her mother Josephine Lee at her marriage, and also had a brother Samuel Lee living in Leiden.

Samuel Fuller came on the Mayflower in 1620, leaving behind his wife Bridget. She would come later, on the ship Anne in 1623. He was the Colony’s doctor, and was a church deacon. His wife Bridget may have been the church’s deaconess. Samuel Fuller spent time helping the sick at Neumkeag (now Salem) in 1629. He himself became sick in the autumn of 1633, and died, as did a number of other Plymouth residents.





42. & 43. Thomas & Joseph Rogers

Kinfolk: father-in-law of great-aunt of wife of 1st cousin of husband of 5th cousin 5x removed

  • Joseph Rogers , LT, Mayflower Pilgrim



  • Thomas Rogers , Mayflower Pilgrim


  • Alice Cosford

Spouse & Children

  • Hannah Churchman

  • Thomas Rogers



Thomas Rogers

Kinfolk: paternal grandfather of husband of great-aunt of wife of 1st cousin of husband of 5th cousin 5x removed


BIRTH: Before 1572, likely near Watford, co. Northampton, England, son of William and Eleanor Rogers.
MARRIAGE: Alice Cosford, 24 October 1597, at Watford, co. Northampton, daughter of George Cosford.
CHILDREN: Thomas (died young), Richard (died young), Joseph, John, Elizabeth, and Margaret.
DEATH: Sometime the first winter at Plymouth, likely between January and March 1621.


Thomas Rogers was born in Watford, Northampton, England, the son of William and Eleanor Rogers. He married Alice Cosford in 1597. All his children were baptized and/or buried in Watford. He brought his wife and family to Leiden, Holland, where he became a citizen of Leiden on 25 June 1618.  His occupation in Leiden records was given as a camlet merchant.  Camlet was a luxury fabric from Asia that was made of camel’s hair or angora wool mixed with silk.

On 1 April 1620, he sold his house on Barbarasteeg for 300 guilders, apparently in preparation for his voyage on the Mayflower. He came on the Mayflower with eldest son Joseph, leaving behind in Leiden his younger son John, daughters Elizabeth and Margaret, and wife Alice.

Thomas Rogers died the first winter at Plymouth, leaving behind his 18-year old son Joseph. His wife and children that were left behind in Leiden are found in the 1622 poll tax of Leiden, and were termed “poor people” and “without means.” Children Elizabeth and Margaret apparently came to New England later, but where they lived or whom they married remains  unknown. Son John came to Plymouth about 1630, and there married Anna Churchman on 16 April 1639.






44. – 49. Stephen, Elizabeth Fisher Hopkins, Constance, Giles, Damaris & Oceanus Hopkins

Kinfolk: 2nd great-grandfather of wife of 1st cousin of husband of 5th cousin 5x removed

Stephen HOPKINS , Mayflower Pilgrim


Spouse & Children

  • Elizabeth Fisher , Mayflower Pilgrim


  • Damaris HOPKINS , I, Mayflower Pilgrim


  • Oceanus HOPKINS , Mayflower Pigrim



  • Constance HOPKINS , Mayflower Pilgrim


  • Giles HOPKINS , Mayflower Pilgrim



Stephen Hopkins

BAPTISM: 30 April 1581 at Upper Clatford, Hampshire, England, son of John and Elizabeth (Williams) Hopkins.
FIRST MARRIAGE: Mary, possibly the daughter of Robert and Joan (Machell) Kent of Hursley, co. Hampshire, prior to 1604.
SECOND MARRIAGE: Elizabeth Fisher on 19 February 1617/8 at St. Mary Matfellon, Whitechapel, co. Middlesex, England.
CHILDREN (by Mary):  Elizabeth, Constance, and Giles.
CHILDREN (by Elizabeth): Damaris (died young), Oceanus, Caleb, Deborah, Damaris, Ruth, and Elizabeth.










Mayflower passenger list:

Mayflower (1620)

View the original list of passengers (PDF, 2.6Mb) from the handwritten manuscript of Gov. William Bradford, written up about 1651 (file link is to the State Library of Massachusetts).  Below is a complete list of all Mayflowerpassengers, along with a link to each for further information.




Signing of the Mayflower Compact

The Mayflower Compact was the first agreement for self-government to be created and enforced in America. On September 16, 1620 the Mayflower, a British ship, with 102 passengers, who called themselves Pilgrims, aboard sailed from Plymouth, England.

The Mayflower Compact was the first governing document of Plymouth Colony. It was written by the male passengers of the Mayflower, consisting of separatist Congregationalists who called themselves “Saints”, and adventurers and tradesmen, most of whom were referred to by the Separatists as “Strangers”. Later both groups were referred to as Pilgrims or Pilgrim Fathers. The Separatists were fleeing from religious persecution by King James of England.

The Mayflower Compact was signed aboard ship on November 11, 1620 by the Pilgrims. They used the Julian Calendar, also known as Old Style dates, which, at that time, was ten days behind the Gregorian Calendar. Signing the covenant were 41 of the ship’s 101 passengers,[1][2] while the Mayflower was anchored in what is now Provincetown Harbor within the hook at the northern tip of Cape Cod.[3]

Reasons for the Compact

The Mayflower was originally bound for the Colony of Virginia, financed by the Company of Merchant Adventurers of London. Storms forced them to anchor at the hook of Cape Cod in what is now Massachusetts; it was unwise to continue with provisions running short. This inspired some of the Strangers to proclaim that, since the settlement would not be made in the agreed-upon Virginia territory, they “would use their own liberty; for none had power to command them.”[4] To prevent this, the Pilgrims chose to establish a government. The Mayflower Compact was based simultaneously upon a majoritarian model (taking into account that women and children could not vote) and the settlers’ allegiance to the king. It was in essence a social contract in which the settlers consented to follow the compact’s rules and regulations for the sake of order and survival.[5] The Pilgrims had lived for some years in Leiden, a city in the Dutch Republic. “Just as a spiritual covenant had marked the beginning of their congregation in Leiden, a civil covenant would provide the basis for a secular government in America.”[6]

In November 1620, the Mayflower anchored at what is now Plymouth, named after the major port city in Devon, England from which she sailed. The settlers named their settlement “New Plimoth” or “Plimouth”, the most common spelling used by William Bradford in his journal Of Plimoth Plantation.[7]


Bradford’s transcription of the compact

The original document has been lost,[8] but three versions exist from the 17th century: printed in Mourt’s Relation (1622),[9][10] which was reprinted in Purchas his Pilgrimes (1625);[11] hand-written by William Bradford in his journal Of Plimoth Plantation (1646);[12] and printed by Bradford’s nephew Nathaniel Morton in New-Englands Memorial (1669).[8] The three versions differ slightly in wording and significantly in spelling, capitalization, and punctuation.[10] William Bradford wrote the first part of Mourt’s Relation, including its version of the compact, so he wrote two of the three versions. The wording of those two versions is indeed quite similar, unlike that of Morton. Bradford’s handwritten manuscript is kept in a vault at the State Library of Massachusetts.[13]

Modern version

In the name of God, Amen. We, whose names are underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord King James, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, defender of the Faith, etc.

Having undertaken, for the Glory of God, and advancements of the Christian faith and honor of our King and Country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the Northern parts of Virginia, do by these presents, solemnly and mutually, in the presence of God, and one another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil body politic; for our better ordering, and preservation and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions, and offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general good of the colony; unto which we promise all due submission and obedience.

In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names at Cape Cod the 11th of November, in the year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord King James, of England, France, and Ireland, the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth, 1620.[14]

The ‘dread sovereign’ referred to in the document uses the archaic definition of dread, meaning awe and reverence (for the King). Also, as noted above, the document was signed under the Old Style Julian calendar, since England did not adopt the Gregorian calendar until 1752. The Gregorian date would be November 21.


A list of 41 male passengers who signed the document was supplied by Bradford’s nephew Nathaniel Morton in his 1669 New England’s MemorialThomas Prince first numbered the names in his 1736 A Chronological History of New-England in the form of Annals.[1] The original document has been lost, so Morton (1669) is our sole source for the signers. He probably had access to the original document, but he could not have known the actual order in which it was signed simply by inspecting it. Morton’s arrangement of names is probably not the arrangement of names on the original document, and the names on the original may not have been arranged in any orderly fashion. Prince’s numbers are based solely on Morton (1669), as he himself stated.[8]

Morton’s list of names was unnumbered and untitled in all editions, although their order changed with successive editions. In his original 1669 edition, the columns were placed on two successive pages (15–16) forming six short columns, three columns of seven names each (headed Carver, Samuel Fuller, and Edward Tilley) on the first page and three columns of seven, seven, and six names each (headed Turner, Priest, and Clarke) on the next page.[8] In the second (1721) and third (1772) editions, the six short columns were joined into three long columns of 14, 14, and 13 names each on a single page (20). The first and fourth short columns were joined into the first long column (headed Carver with Turner halfway down), the second and fifth short columns were joined into the second long column (headed Samuel Fuller with Priest halfway down), and the third and sixth short columns were joined into the third long column (headed Edward Tilley with Clarke halfway down), changing their order. In the fifth (1826) and sixth (1855) editions, the names were also in three long columns of 14, 14, and 13 names each on one page (1826: 38, 1855: 26),but now they were placed in their original 1669 order. The first and second short columns formed the first long column (headed Carver with Samuel Fuller halfway down), the third and fourth short columns formed the second long column (headed Edward Tilley with Turner halfway down), and the fifth and sixth short columns formed the third long column (headed Priest with Clarke halfway down). Both long column orders appear in modern lists of unnumbered signers.

Prince numbered the names in their original 1669 Morton order (the same as the 1826/55 Morton order) on successive pages (85–86), two columns of eight names each on one page (headed 1 Carver and 9 Martin) and two columns of 13 and 12 names each on the next page (headed 17 Cooke and 30 Williams). The third (1852) edition placed these numbered names in two columns (the first column headed 1 Carver with 8 Samuel Fuller and 15 Edward Tilleybelow, and the second column headed 22 Turner with 29 Priest and 36 Clarkebelow) on a single page (172). He added titles (Mr. or Capt.) to eleven names, names that were given those titles by William Bradford in the list of passengers at the end of his manuscript.[1][12] He attributed the lack of Mr.Bradford to Bradford’s modesty. Prince’s numbered order of signers is now used to identify ancestors in genealogical charts.[8]

The following list of signers is organized into the six short columns of Morton (1669) with the numbers and titles of Prince. The names are given their modern spelling according to Morison (1966).[15] Use the numbers given for the order used by genealogists and half of unnumbered lists (Samuel Fuller will be the eighth name), but merge the half columns vertically into full columns for the order used by the other half of unnumbered lists (John Turner will be the eighth name).

See also


  1. a b c Thomas Prince, A chronological history of New England in the form of annals (1736) Chronology 73, 84–86. Internet Archive.
  2. ^ Bradford listed 104 passengers, including William Button, a servant of Samuel Fuller, who died 5 days before landfall, Oceanus Hopkins, born at sea, Perigrine White, born two weeks after landfall, and two seaman hired for one year, William Trevor and one Ely. If the two seaman and Perigrine White are ignored (William Button’s death is offset by Oceanus Hopkins’ birth), the “101 who sail’d from Plimouth in England, and just as many arriv’d in Cape Cod Harbour” listed by Prince are left.
  3. ^ Young, Alexander (1841). Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers of the Colony of Plymouth from 1602 to 1625. pp. 117–124.
  4. ^ Bradford, William (1898). “Book 2, Anno 1620”. In Hildebrandt, Ted. Bradford’s History “Of Plimoth Plantation” (PDF). Boston: Wright & Potter. Retrieved 2006-06-01.
  5. ^ Young 1841, p. 120.
  6. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick (2006), Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War, Penguin Book, New York, N.Y., ISBN 978-0-14-311197-9, p. 41
  7. ^ “English Village FAQs: 26. Why is Plymouth spelled “P-l-i-m-o-t-h”?”Plimoth Plantation.
  8. a b c d e George Ernest Bowman, The Mayflower Compact and its signers (Boston: Massachusetts Society of Mayflower Descendants, 1920). Photocopies of the 1622, 1646 and 1669 versions of the document.
  9. ^ William Bradford, Edward Winslow (printer G. Mourt [George Morton], Relation or Iournall of the beginning and proceedings of the English Plantation setled at Plimoth in New England, Early English Books Online, p.4
  10. a b Henry Martyn Dexter, [G. Mourt = George Morton], Mourt’s Relation or Journal of the Plantation at Plymouth, 1865, pp.6–7, a reprint using original typeface, paragraphs, punctuation, spelling and embellishments, but not pagination.
  11. ^ Samuel Purchas, Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes, Vol. XIX (Glasgow:James Maclehose, 1906) 313–314. Reprint of 1625 edition except that letters i, j, u, and v are used according to modern custom, contracted letters extended, printers’ errors corrected, and repaginated from original four volumes to twenty volumes (I.xxvi).
  12. a b William Bradford, Bradford’s History “Of Plimoth Plantation” from the original manuscript (Boston: 1901) page 110 (photocopy of manuscript page follows). Passengers listed on pages 530–540. No annotations. Official printing by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. This printing of compact is identical to the 1856 version by the Massachusetts Historical Society. Spelling and contractions follow manuscript except for modern u/v usage. Capitalization and punctuation differ from manuscript. A faithful transcription is at Mayflower Compact (1620) Archived 2009-03-03 at the Wayback Machine..
  13. ^ History of Plimoth Plantation: manuscript, 1630–1650. State Library of Massachusetts Catalog
  14. ^ “The Mayflower Compact (1620)” (PDF). http://www.cos.edu.
  15. ^ Samuel Eliot Morison, Of Plymouth Plantation 1620–1647 by William Bradford (New York: Alfed A. Knopf, 1966) 441–3.



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